Hormonal pills can be direct source of exogenous estrogens generally prescribed for regulating periods in young women or to control heavy bleeding. It is also used as contraceptive pill. Any of these can lead to excess
HyperInsulinema is caused by excess insulin production due to excess sugar or refined carbohydrate consumption. This in long term lead to Insulin Resistance. Higher intake processed carbs and sugar lead to blood sugar dysregulation and increases aromatase enzyme activity which up regulates estrogen production
Gut dysbiosis is when there is imbalance between bad flora and healthy flora which can be due to the wrong food choices or presence of pathogenic bacteria or yeast in digestive tract. Candidiasis is common cause of Estrogen dominance.
Lack of soluble and insoluble fibre in diet increasesrecirculation of estrogen because detoxification of metabolites happens through liver and excreted via digestive tract.
Stress can cause the cortisol to rise and this process is known as cortisol steal. Pregnenolone is precursor to cortisol as well as progesterone but when you are under stress the pathway shift towards cortisol and there is less progesterone to balance the estrogen and you end up with excess estrogen.
Toxic exposure can be through various hormone disruptors chemicals in the food, water, plastics, topical products andcosmetics which behaves like estrogens in body known as xenoestrogens.
Obesity in itself can make your fat cells up regulates aromatase activity and estrogen production. The more estrogen you have more fat you store and vice versa.
Excessive meat and protein consumption decreases SHBG level rendering more free circulating Estrogen. Men need to lower SHBG levels to increase free testosterone while its opposite is applicable for female.